Frequent use of social media compromises teenagers’ mental health or well-being by increasing their exposure to bullying and reducing sleep and physical exercise, according to new British research.
The study, which is the first with enough participants to make it representative of the whole of England and to follow teenagers’ social media use and mental health over time, also found the indirect effects on girls are much more pronounced than in boys.
The study, conducted by UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, collected data from nearly 10,000 teenagers aged 13-16 years between the years 2013-2015. While researchers found that very frequent use of social media indirectly effects teenage mental health, direct effects, such as on brain development, are unlikely.
In England, more than 90% of teenagers use the internet for social networking. There is growing concern about their use of social media and the impact on their mental health and well-being, although evidence for the impact remains contradictory. Half of all mental illnesses start by the age of 14, making adolescence a crucial period for promoting mental health. There is some evidence that social media use can positively influence health, for example by reducing social isolation. However, few long-term studies exist and few have examined the mechanisms that might impact on well-being.
Professor Russell Viner who led the research, said: “Our results suggest that social media itself doesn’t cause harm, but that frequent use disrupts activities that have a positive impact on mental health such as sleeping and exercising, while increasing exposure of young people to harmful content, particularly the negative experience of cyberbullying.”
For the current study, scientists analysed data from three sets of interviews with teenagers from nearly 1,000 schools across England, as they progressed from Year 9 (13 to 14-year-olds) to Year 11 (15 to 16-year-olds).
At all three stages, young people reported the frequency with which they access social media. Very frequent social media use was defined as using networks, instant messaging or photo-sharing services such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat and WhatsApp three or more times (multiple times) daily. The authors note that a limitation of the study is the survey did not ask how much time the teenagers spent using social media, only how often they checked or accessed it.
In the second year of the study, participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), for which a high score indicates psychological distress. They were also asked about their experiences of cyberbullying, sleep and physical activity.
In the final year, participants were surveyed about three aspects of their personal well-being: life satisfaction, happiness and anxiety – using standard Office of National Statistics questions. When the authors found any significant associations between the teenagers’ social media use and psychological distress or well-being, they assessed the degree to which this could be attributed to cyberbullying, sleep and physical activity.
In 2013, of 10,000 children interviewed, 43% of boys and 51% of girls used social media multiple times a day. By 2014, this had increased to 51% and 68% respectively. In 2015, 69% of boys and 75% of girls used social media multiple times a day.
In both sexes, very frequent social media use was associated with greater psychological distress. In girls, the more often they accessed or checked social media, the greater their psychological distress. In 2014, 28% of very female frequent social media users reported psychological distress on the general health questionnaire, compared with 20% of those using it weekly or less. In boys, the effect was not as clear.
Persistent very frequent social media use across 2013 and 2014 predicted later lower well-being in girls, with girls who persistently used social media very frequently reporting lower life satisfaction and happiness and greater anxiety in 2015. In contrast, no significant associations were identified by the survey in boys.
Some previous studies have suggested that prior mental health problems lead to greater social media use and the authors note that it’s possible this was the case in the first year of the current study. However, in the second and third years, their findings strongly suggest causal links between social media use and mental health and well-being.
The authors found that almost all of the effect on girls’ well-being in 2015 was down to cyberbullying, reduced sleep (of less than eight hours a night) and reduced physical activity (exercising less than once a week). They also found that nearly 60% of the impact on psychological distress in girls in 2014 could be accounted for by their sleep being disrupted and by greater exposure to cyberbullying. Reduced physical activity also played a lesser role.
In contrast, cyberbullying, sleep and physical activity appeared to explain only 12% of the impact of very frequent social media use on psychological distress in boys. These findings suggest that there are other mechanisms behind the effects of social media on boys’ mental health. The authors suggest they are likely to be indirect, as found for girls, but further research is needed to reveal what they might be.